Annotation guidelines
PARSEME shared task on automatic identification of verbal MWEs - edition 1.0 (2017)

Syntactic variants of VMWEs

VMWEs in this task include following syntactic structures:

  1. Prototypical verb phrases: in most cases, the prototypical form of a VMWE is a verb in finite form – or a participle, infinitive or gerund with finite auxiliaries – in active voice, and whose other components depend directly or by transitivity on the verb. The VMWE can also contain coordinated verbs. These phrases can be:
    • Partly saturated, where only some of their arguments are lexicalized:
      • пиля нечии нерви scrape someone's nerves to annoy someone
        вземам трудно решение make a difficult decision to make a difficult decision
      • traf eine Entscheidung made a decision
        nahm sich das zu Herzen took this to heart
      • παίρνω μία δύσκολη απόφαση take-1SG a-FE.SG.AC difficult-FE.SG.AC decision-FE.SG.AC to take a difficult decision
        παίρνω τα μέτρα μου take-1.SG the-NE.PL.AC measures-NE.PL.AC my-1.SG.GE.POSS to take precautions
        γράφω κάποιον στα παλιά μου τα παπούτσια write-1.SG someone to-the-NE.PL.AC old-NE.PL.AC my-1.SG.GE.POSS shoes-NE.PL.AC to ignore someone
      • made a decision
        break her heart
        took this to heart
        could take this to heart
        would have been making a decision
        could have made a different decision
      • tomó una decisión took.he/she a decision he/she made a decision
        le hubiera roto el corazón him/her would_have broken.he/she the heart he/she would have broken his/her heart
      • a eu du courage has had courage had courage
      • sétát tesz to take a walk
      • prendere una decisionemake a decision take a decision
        spezzare il cuorebreak the heart break the heart
        prendere a cuore
        take to heart take to heart
      • podjął niejedną trudną decyzję took.3.SG not-one hard decision he took several hard decisions
      • eles deram uma caminhada they gave a walk they took a walk
      • a trece asta cu vederea to pass this with sight.the.ACC to overlook
        a trece ceva sub tăcere to keep something under silence.ACC to keep quiet about something
      • fattade ett belsut made a decision
      • sprejeti odločitev to make a decision, zlomiti komu srce to break someone's heart to upset someone by letting them know that you do not love them, vzeti si k srcu take something to heart to think about something seriously
    • Partly saturated, where the lexicalized arguments include the subject:
      • излиза ми име appears for-me.DAT name a name sticks for/to me
        чашата на търпението ми прелива glass.DET of patience my.POS overflows my patience runs out
      • ein Vöglein hat mir gezwitschert a little bird has to me twittered a little bird told me
      • μου έφυγε ο τάκος me.GEN left the chosk I was very tired
      • a little bird told someone, the problem lies in something
      • me lo ha dicho un pajarito to_me it has said a little_bird a little bird has told me
      • me lo ha detto un uccellino to me it told a little bird a little bird told me
      • mina komuś zrzedła the face someone.DAT thinned one lost one's confidence
      • a sua hora chegou your time has arrived your time has come
      • a mustra cugetul (pe cineva) to chide consciousness-the (PE_Acc somebody) the consciousness chides (PE somebody)
      • srce pade v hlače komu (someone's) hart drops into the pants one hasn't enough courage to do somethiing, sekira pade v med komu
    • Partly saturated, where lexicalized head verbs are coordinated:
      • цъфна и вържа to blossom and give fruit (usually sarcastically) to prosper
      • leben und leben lassen to live and let live to live and let live
      • απορώ και εξίσταμαι wonder1.SG and be-amazed1.SG to wonder
      • drink and drive
      • coser y cantar to_sew and to_sing easy as pie, a piece of cake
      • vivi e lascia vivere to live and let live to live and let live
      • pluł i łapał he spit and catched (he) was lazy, (he) did nothing useful
      • pintar e bordar paint and knit to abuse
      • a tunat și i-a adunatit.has thundered and CL.ACC-it.has gatheredbirds of a feather flock together
        seamănă, dar nu răsaresow.3SG (homonym of resemble), but not sprout.3SGnot to resemble
      • živi in pusti živeti to live and let live to live and let live
    • Fully saturated:
      • пиле не може да прехвръкне bird cannot fly in it is very strictly guarded
      • der frühe Vogel fängt den Wurmthe early bird catches the wormthe early bird catches the worm
      • το έξυπνο πουλί από τη μύτη πιάνεται the clever bird is-caught-3SG by the nose people who consider themelves clever fail
      • the early bird catches the worm
      • los ojos son el reflejo del alma the eyes are the reflection from_the soul the eyes are the window to the soul
      • à quelque chose malheur est bon for something bad luck is good bad experiences may bring unexpected positive effects
      • nie od razu Kraków zbudowano not at once Cracow was built Rome was not built in a day
        kości zostały rzuconethe dice have been thrownalea iacta est
      • quem vê cara não vê coração who sees face doesn't see heart a person can lie/omit his/her feelings
      • se revarsă zorile Refl.Cl.3sg.Acc. flow_out dawns it is getting morning
      • kdor prej pride, prej melje who came first mills first
  2. Meaning-preserving variants belonging to the following syntactic categories.
    • infinitives:
      • eine Entscheidung treffen a decision meet to make a decision
      • έχω πάρει την απόφασή μου
      • to make a decision, to break one's heart
      • tomar una decisión to_take a decision to_make a decision
        hacer ilusión to_make excitement to look forward to, to be excited about
      • avoir du courage to have courage
      • prendere una decisione take a decision to make a decision
      • podjąć niejedną trudną decyzję to take several hard decisions
      • tomar essa decisão to take this decision
      • lua o decizie make a decision
      • odločitev je treba sprejeti decisions has to be made
    • Nominal groups (headed by nominal complements from the prototypical VMWEs) with relative clauses:
      • решението, което взех decision.DET which I.PRODROP made the decision which I made
      • Entscheidungen die wir trafen decisions which we made
        Herzen die wir gebrochen haben hearts which we broke have hearts which we have broken
      • η απόφαση που πήραμε
        η πλάκα που κάναμε
      • decisions which we made
        heart which we broke
      • la decisión que tomamos the decision which made.we the decision we took
        la ilusión que le hizo the excitement which to_him/to_her he/she was very excited by it
      • les décisions que nous avons prises hier sont bonnes the decisions that we have taken yesterday are good the decisions that were made yesterday are good
      • la decisione che prendemmo the decision which we took the decision which we made
        i cuori che abbiamo spezzato the hearts which we have broken hearts which we have broken
      • decyzje, które podjął decisions which he took
      • a apresentação que Maria fez the presentation that Mary made
      • decizia pe care am luat-o the decision that we have made
      • odločitev, ki jo je sprejel decisions which he took
    • Gerunds:
      • вземайки това решение (while) making this decision
      • n.a. (?)
      • παίρνοντας αποφάσεις
        κάνοντας πλάκα
      • decision making
        heart breaking
      • n.a.
      • En prenant cette décision by making this decision
        les personnes subissant plusieurs opérations sont fragiles the people undergoing several surgical operations are fragile
      • Prendendo decisioni importanti, imparerai by making important decisions, you will learn
      • podejmowanie decyzji decision making
      • Estou tomando uma decisão I am taking a decision
        A pessoa tomando banho sou eu The person taking shower am I
      • luând decizia making the decision
      • sprejemanje odločitev making the decision
    • Nominal and adjectival groups with participles:
      • взетите вече решения the decisions already made
        броящ звезди who counts stars
        неразбитите все още от него сърца the hearts not yet broken by him
      • früher getroffene Entscheidungen earlier made decisions
      • n.a.
      • decisions previously made
        all hearts broken by him
        breaking her heart
      • las decisiones tomadas ayer the decisions taken yesterday the decisions made yesterday
        el trato hecho previamente the agreement made previously the previously made agreement
      • les décisions prises hier sont bonnes the decisions taken yesterday are good the decisions that were made yesterday are good
        les personnes subissant plusieurs opérations sont fragiles the people undergoing several surgical operations are fragile
      • decisioni prese made decisions
      • podejmujący trudne decyzje making hard decisions
      • a decisão tomada ontem the decision made yesterday
        a mulher tomando um banho a woman taking a bath
      • decizia recent luată the decision recently made
      • včeraj sprejete odločitve the decision made yesterday
    • Diathesis alternation (passive, middle) Some VMWE (especially LVC) do allow diathesis alternation.:
      • important decisions were made (passive alternation)
      • les décisions importantes se prennent en groupe the decisions important SELF take in group important decisions are taken collectively (middle alternation)

If a candidate VMWE is a meaning-preserving variant of a prototypical verbal phrase, all linguistic tests to identify and categorize VMWEs must be applied to this prototypical phrase, rather than to the variant itself. The prototypical forms of a meaning-preserving variant are also known as its canonical forms.

Note that, for some VMWEs, the only possible form is not prototypical. For instance, some VMWEs appear in passive voice but never in active voice. In that case, the linguistic tests should be applied to the passive form with finite passive auxiliary.

Lexicalized verb complements can occur with all sorts of non-lexicalized simple and complex determiners, quantifiers and modifiers (the, some, half a dozen, an impressive number of, …). These optional elements should not be included in the annotated VMWE. Moreover, depending on the syntactic theory used, the lexicalized elements will not depend directly on the verb, but only indirectly, by transitivity. In this case, the canonical form is the one that includes no complex determiners, quantifiers and modifiers, thus creating direct dependency links between the lexicalized components.

  • they had taken a significant number of stepsapply tests to they take steps
  • dostać połowę spadku to receive half of the heritage
    nie mieć cienia wątpliwości not to have a shadow of a doubt to have no doubt
  • ele fez o restante do trabalho to make the remainder of the workapply tests to ele fez o trabalho he did the work

Expressions of the syntactic categories mentioned above are considered VMWEs only if they function as verb phrases (case 1) or nominal/participial phrases (case 2). Other kinds of variants are not considered VMWEs. This concerns nominalizations morphologically derived from verbs and describing a process, result, state, agent, etc.

  • вземане на решение making a decision
    удар в гърба a stab in the back
    високо вдигната летва highly raised bar high bar
    играч на карти card player
  • Wortbruch word-break a promise which has not been hold
  • η λήψη αποφάσεων the-FE.SG.NOM taking-FE.SG.NOM decisions-GE.PL.GEN deciding
  • a take-off
  • toma de decisiones taking of decisions decision making
    puesta a punto lay to point set-up
  • la prise en compte the fact of taking into account'
    une mise à disposition the fact of making available
  • la messa a disposizionethe made to availability the fact of making available
  • zabawa czyimś kosztem a play at someone else's expenses derived from bawić się czyimś kosztem to enjoy oneself at someone else's expenses
  • a tomada de decisão the making of decisions
    o tomador de decisão the decision-maker
  • luarea unei decizii take-noun.suffix a-genit decisionmaking a decision
  • sprejeta odločitev the decision

We also do not annotate MWEs containing verbs but functioning as adverbials or nominals (other than in case 2):

  • може би (it) may be maybe
    разбира се (it) is understood of course
  • Vergiss-mein-nichtforget-me-notforget-me-not
  • τα πάρε-δώσε the.NE.PL.ACC give-2SG.IMP take-2SG.IMP relationship of some type
  • forget-me-not
  • sacacorchos take_out corks corkscrew
    portalápices carry pencils pencil case
    nomeolvidesnot to_me forget_you-forget-me-not
  • peut-être may-be maybe
    porte-feuille carry-sheets wallet
  • non-ti-scordar-di-menot you forget-me-forget-me-not
  • zrobić coś za Bóg-zapłać do something for a God-pay to do something for free
  • um saca-rolhas a pull-corks a corkscrew
    um faz-de-conta a make-as-story a make-believe
  • treacă-meargă pass-golet it be

Particular language teams may decide to extend the annotation scope to these variants. It is recommended in this case to introduce a new category for them (e.g. NVPC: nominal verb-particle constructions) so as to keep the (quasi-)universal categories intact.

Like other VMWE occurrences, syntactic variants are also annotated if they contain one multi-word token only, e.g. particle verbs like (DE) aus|machen.