Annotation guidelines
PARSEME shared task on automatic identification of verbal MWEs - edition 1.1 (2018)


Structural tests (S)

Structural tests are quite simple preliminary tests that help determining the syntactic structure of the VMWE. This is required in order to point at the right category-specific identification tests. In practice, annotators will rarely need them since they will already have an intuition about the VMWE candidate category when they identify it.

Test S.1 (prev. 6) - [HEAD] - Syntactic head

Does the candidate contain a unique verb functioning as the functional syntactic head of the whole?

  • Apply the VID-specific tests
    • цъфна и вържа → none of the verbs is clearly the head, as there is no universally accepted syntactic representation of coordination
    • leben und leben lassen live and let live → none of the verbs is clearly the head, as there is no universally accepted syntactic representation of coordination
    • έδωσε πήρε gave3SG.PA took3SG.PA he struggled> τα κατάφερε → none of the verbs is clearly the head
    • to pretty-print → there is an unusual case of an adjective modifying a verb
      to drink and drive → none of the verbs is clearly the head, as there is no universally accepted syntactic representation of coordination
    • coser y cantarto_sew and to_singeasy as pie, a piece of cake
    • ikusi eta ikasi see and learn → none of the verbs is clearly the head
    • žariti i paliti to stoke and to burn to be powerful , vedriti i oblačiti to brighten and to cloud to be poweful → none of the verbs is clearly the head, as there is no universally accepted syntactic representation of coordination
    • vivi e lascia vivere live and let live → none of the verbs is clearly the head, as there is no universally accepted syntactic representation of coordination
    • pluć i łapać to spit and catchto be lazy, to do nothing useful → none of the verbs is clearly the head, as there is no universally accepted syntactic representation of coordination
    • pintar e bordar paint and knit to abuse
    • živi in pusti živeti to live and let live to live and let live → none of the verbs is clearly the head, as there is no universally accepted syntactic representation of coordination
    • det knallar och går it trots and walks it is OK/as usual → none of the verbs is clearly the head, as there is no universally accepted syntactic representation of coordination
  • continue to the next test
    • гушна букета to hug the bunch of flowers to die гушна is the head and the NP depends on it
      правя на салата to make into salad to scold правя is the head and the PP depends on it
    • eine Fratze ziehen a grimace pull to make a face ziehen is the head and the NP depends on it
      er gibt auf he gives up gibt is the head and auf is the particle depending on it
    • κάνωγκριμάτσα to make grimace to make a face κάνω is the head and the NP depends on it
    • to make a face make is the head and the NP depends on it
      to give up give is the head and up is a particle depending on it
    • dar la cara to_put the face face the consequences dar is the head and the NP depends on it
      hacer muecas to_make grimmaces to make a face hacer is the head and the NP depends on it
    • lan egin work do to work → the verb egin is the head and the NP depends on it
    • složiti facu make a face to show reaction složiti is the head and the NP depends on it
    • fare le linguacce to_make the grimaces fare is the head and the NP depends on it
      far fuori to_make out to kill fare is the head and fuori is a particle depending on it
    • zbijać bąki to smash fartsto fool around, to do nothing usefulzbijać is the head and the NP bąki depends on it
      dać komuś popalićto let someone smoketo make someone's life hard dać is the head and the infinitive popalić depends on it
    • bater as botas bater is the head and the NP depends on it
      criar vergonha na cara criar is the head and the two NPs depend on it
    • a face baie to make bath to bath face is the head and the NP depends on it
      a ieși înainte to go forth to greet ieși is the head and înainte is a particle depending on it
    • imeti krompir to have potatoes to be lucky imeti is the head and the NP depends on it
    • att ge upp to give up ge is the head and upp is the particle depending on it

The aim of this test is to categorize (as VID or no VMWE) those candidates which have no single clearly identified head verb. This is necessary because all other tests refer to the single head verb v and its dependents. Note that for VMWE candidates having the structure of a meaning-preserving variant, the test should be applied to their canonical form instead. This is required because there may be no verb or the verb may not be the syntactic head in such variants.

  • вземам решение passes the test → variants like решението, което беше взето pass the test as well
  • eine Entscheidung treffen make a decision passes the test → variants like die Entscheidung wurde getroffen the decision was made, die Entscheidung, welche getroffen wurde the decision which was made, das Treffen der Entscheidung the making of the decision pass the test as well
  • παίρνω μία απόφαση make a decision passes the test → variants like η απόφαση που πήραμε, πάρθηκε απόφαση, παίρνοντας απόφαση pass the test as well
  • to make a decision passes the test → variants like the decision which was made, decision-making, the making of the decision pass the test as well
  • tomar una decisión passes the test → variants like la decisión fue tomada, tomando esa decisión, la decisión que tomaron pass the test as well
  • erabakia hartu decision take to make a decision passes the test → variants like hartutako erabakia the decision (which was) made, erabaki hura hartzea (the fact of) making that decision, erabakiak hartutakoan when the decisions were made pass the test as well
  • donijeti odluku make a decision passes the test → variants like odluka donesena tada decision made then pass the test as well
  • prendere una decisione to_take a decision make a decision passes the test → variants like la decisione è stata presa the decision was made, la decisione, che è stata presa the decision which was made, prendendo la decisione taking the decision pass the test as well
  • zbijać bąki to smash fartsto fool around, to do nothing useful passes the test → variants like zbijanie bąków farts smashingfooling around, doing nothing useful, zbijający bąki smashing farts pass the test as well
  • tomar uma decisão make a decision passes the test → variants like a decisão que foi tomada the decision which was made, decisão tomada decision made pass the test as well
  • a lua o decizie make a decision passes the test → variants like decizia care a fost luată the decision which was made, luarea deciziei decision-making pass the test as well
  • zlomiti komu srce to break someone's heart to hurt someone's feelings bad passes the test → variants like srca, ki jih je zlomil hearts which he has broken (people's) feelings which he hurt bad, lomljenje src breaking (people's) hearts hurting (people's) feelings and nedavno zlomljeno srce recently broken heart pass the test as well

Test S.2 (prev. 7) - [1DEP] - Single dependent

Does the VMWE contain exactly one lexicalized (functional) syntactic dependent d of the head verb v?

  • Apply the VID-specific tests
    • на стар краставичар краставици продавам to an old cucumber seller cucumbers to sell to try to cheat a more experienced persontwo dependents, на стар краставичар (PP) and краставици (NP)
      прочитам от корица до корица to read from cover to covertwo dependents, от корица (PP) and до корица (PP)
      правя (нечий) живот черен make someone'l life black to ruin someone's lifetwo dependents, (нечий) живот (NP) and черен (small clause)
    • die Katze aus dem Sack lassen to let the cat out of the bag → two dependents die Katze and aus dem Sack
    • κάνω την καρδιά μου πέτρα make my heart rock try to remain calmtwo dependents, την καρδιά and πέτρα
    • to make ends meettwo dependents, ends and meet
      to let the cat out of the bagtwo dependents, the cat and out of the bag
    • dejar con la miel en los labios to_leave with the honey in the lips leave (sb) wanting moretwo dependents, con la miel and en los labios
      dar gato por liebre to_give cat for hare to rip off, to take for a ridetwo dependents, gato and por liebre
    • odolkiak ordainetan eman black-puddings in-exchange give to do something as a response to something somebody has done to oneself (similar to 'what goes around comes around')
    • ići glavom kroz zid to go with head through the wall to be stubborn → two dependents glavom and kroz zid
    • mettere il carro davanti ai buoi to_put the cart in front of the oxen put the cart in front of the horse → two dependents carro and davanti ai buoi
    • chować głowę w piasek to hide head in sandto pretend not to see a problem → two dependents, głowę head and w piasek in sand
      bać się własnego cienia to fear SELF one's own shadowto be very timid → two dependents, się SELF and własnego cienia own shadow
    • tapar o sol com a peneira to hide the sun with a sieve to sugar-coat → two dependents
    • a da bir cu fugițiito give tribute with fugitives theto disappeartwo dependents, bir and cu fugiții
      a- i ieși ochii din cap to his come out eyes the from head to starethree dependents, i, which is a non-RCLI, ochii, and din cap
    • skrivati glavo v pesekto hide head in sand to pretend not to see a problem → two dependents, glavahead and v pesekin sand
      vlečeš me za nosyou are pulling my nose you're pulling my leg → two dependents, meme and za nosmy nose
    • att sätta sig upp mot någon to sit oneslef up against someone To defy someonetwo dependents, sig and upp
  • Continue to the next test
    • ритам камбаната kick the bell to diethe single dependent is a noun phrase, камбаната
      ставам на кайма turn into mince to be destroyedthe single dependent is a prepositional phrase, на кайма
      одирам жив skin alive to make someone sufferthe single dependent is an small clause (adjective), жив
    • eine Fratze ziehen a grimace pull to make a face → the single dependent is a noun phrase, Fratze
      , in Betracht ziehen to take into consideration → the single dependent is a prepositional phrase, in Betracht
      er gibt auf he gives up → the single dependent is a particle auf
    • παίρνω σκληρά μέτραtake strict measuresthe single dependent is a noun phrase, σκληρά μέτρασκληρά μέτρα
      παίρνω στο κυνήγι take to-the chasechasethe single dependent is a prepositional phrase, στο κυνήγιto-the chase
      κάνω επίσκεψηmake visit>visitthe single dependent is a noun, επίσκεψηvisit
      μπαίνω μέσαget inbecome bankruptthe single dependent is an adverb functioning as particle, μέσαin
    • to make a facethe single dependent is a noun phrase, face
      to take into accountthe single dependent is a prepositional phrase, into account
      to take turnsthe single dependent is a noun, turns
      to give upthe single dependent is a particle, up
    • hacer muecas to_make grimmaces to make facesthe single dependent is a noun phrase, muecas
      tener en cuenta to_have in account to take into accountthe single dependent is a prepositional phrase, en cuenta
    • min eman pain give to hurt (somebody)the single dependent is a noun phrase, min
      kontuan hartu into-account take to take into accountthe single dependent is a noun phrase with a postpositional suffix, kontuan
    • imati osjećaj to have a feeling → the single dependent is a noun, osjećaj
    • fare le linguacce to_make the grimaces to make a face → the single dependent is a noun phrase linguacce
      prendere in considerazione to take into consideration → the single dependent is a prepositional phrase, in considerazione
      egli lo fa fuori he kills him → the single dependent is a particle fuori
    • bić na alarm to strike on alarmto raise the alarm → the single dependent is a prepositional phrase, na alarm on alarm
      cholera wie cholera knowsI have no idea→ the single dependent is the nominal subject cholera
    • cometer um crime to commit a crime → one dependent
    • a face fațăto make faceto to deal withthe single dependent is a noun phrase, față
      a ieși înaintethe single dependent is an adverb, înainte
    • gre za it is about → the single dependent is a particle, za
      smejati se to laugh → the single dependent is a reflexive clitic, se
      imeti mačka to have a hangover → the single dependent is a noun, maček
    • att ge upp to give up → the single dependent i s the particle upp

The test covers only lexicalized dependents. There may be other, non-lexicalized dependents, which the test ignores. We explicitly call the non-verbal elements dependents instead of arguments or complements because argument-adjunct distinction is irrelevant. The outcome of the test is positive if the verb has a single lexicalized dependent, which can be the subject, the direct or indirect object, but also an adverbial complement, adverb, particle, relative clause, etc.

Test S.3 (previously nonexistent) - [LEX-SUBJ] - Lexicalized subject

Is the single lexicalized (functional) syntactic dependent d of the head verb v its subject?

  • Apply the VID-specific tests
    • чашата преля the glass overflowed this is the last straw чашата is the subject of преля
    • ein kleines Vöglein hat mir gezwitschert a little bird told me
    • μου είπε ένα πουλάκι ένα πουλάκιa little-bird is the subject of είπεtold
    • a little bird told someone a little bird is the subject of told
    • ha llegado tu hora has arrived your time your time has come tu hora is the subject of ha llegado
      me lo ha dicho un pajarito it to_me has told a little_bird a little bird has told me un pajarito is the subject of ha dicho
    • txoritxo batek esan txoritxo batek is the subject of esan
    • ptičica mi je šapnula a little bird whispered to me ptičica is the subject of šapnula
    • me lo ha detto l'uccellino a little bird told me l'uccellino is the subject of ha detto
    • licho wie devil knowsI have no idea
    • a sua hora chegou your time has arrived your time has come
      um passarinho me contou que ... a little-bird me.DAT told that ... little bird told me that...
    • a șoptit o păsăricăwhispered a bird little a little bird told someone
    • srce pade v hlače komu (someone's) heart drops into the pants one is lacking courage to do something srce heart is the subject of pade falls , sekira pade v med komu (someone's) hatchet falls in honey one gets lucky sekira hatchet is the subject of pade falls
  • Continue to the next test
    • обичам чашката love the glass to be an alcoholic
      вземам назаем take in loan to borrow
      намирам се find SELF to be situated
    • κάνω μια ευχή μία ευχή a wish is the object of κάνω make
    • to make a wish a wish is the object of make
    • pedir un deseo to_ask a wish to make a wish un deseo is the object of pedir
    • hitz eman hitz is the object of eman
    • napraviti prekršaj to make an offense prekršaj is the object of napraviti
    • dare spettacolo to_make a scene spettacolo is the object of dare
    • bać się fear SELFto be afraid
      chodzić prostą drogą to go (on) a straight road.INST to avoid complications
      zacznać od zera to start from zero to start from scratch
    • plouă cu găleata rains with bucket-the It rains heavily cu găleata is the adverbial of plouă
    • imeti glavo na ramenih to have head on shoulders to be sensible glava head is the object of imeti have

This test captures the fact that VMWEs with lexicalized subjects always belong to the VID category. Note that for the VMWE candidates having the structure of a meaning-preserving variant, the test should be applied to their canonical form instead. This is required because there may be no verb or the verb may not be the syntactic head in such variants.

Test S.4 (prev. 8) - [CATEG] - Category of the dependent

What is the morphosyntactic category of the (functional) dependent d that co-occurs with the head verb v?

  • Reflexive clitic - apply IRV tests. If the outcome is negative, discard the VMWE candidate.
    • страхувам се fear myself.REFL to be afraid
      радвам се feel joy myself.REFL to feel joy
    • sich wundern to wonder, sichschämen to be ashamed
    • n.a.
    • English does not have IRV expressions
    • suicidarse to suicide, quejarse to complain
    • n.a.
    • se suicider to suicide, s'évanouir to faint
    • čuditi se to wonder, penjati se to climb
    • suicidarsi to suicide, vergognarsi to be ashamed
    • bać się fear SELFto be afraid
    • suicidar-se to suicide, queixar-se to complain
    • a se sinucide to commit suicide with obligatory ACC reflexive clitic
      a se holba to stare with obligatory ACC reflexive clitic
    • čuditi se to wonder, smejati se to laugh, onesvestiti se to faint
  • Particle (as opposed to an adposition) - apply VPC tests. If the outcome is negative, discard VMWE candidate.
    • Bulgarian does not have VPC expressions
    • anfangento begin, er fängt anhe begins, er hat angefangen he has begun → in German, VPCs may occur separated or within one word, we annotate all occurrences!
      ich schlage vor I propose
    • παίρνω μπρος, βάζω μπρος να, κάνω πίσω
    • to give up, to look forward to
    • n.a.
    • n.a.
    • biti na to be onto to look like
    • far fuori to_make out to kill, lo fa fuorihe kills him , lo ha fatto fuori he killed him
    • Polish does not have VPC expressions
    • jogar fora to-throw outside to discard, throw away
    • Romanian does not have VPC expressions
    • n.a.
  • Verb with no lexicalized dependent - apply MVC tests. If the outcome is negative, apply the VID-specific tests. On negative outcome discard the VMWE candidate.
    • не искам и да чуя don't want to even hear to oppose strongly и да чуя is a VP
    • will sagen want to say that is to say
    • έχω να κάνωhave to doconcern
    • to let go
      to make do
    • querer decir to_want to_say to mean
    • n.a.
    • laisser tomber let fall to give up
      vouloir dire want say to mean
    • pustiti koga živjeti to let someone live not to bother someone, znati raditi to know to work to be capable
    • lasciar andare to_let go to unhand
      voler dire want say to mean
    • dać komuś żyćto let someone livenot to bother someone
      można wytrzymaćone can standthe situatiion is reasonably good
    • querer dizer want say to mean
      ouvir falar hear speak to know/remember vaguely
    • n.a.
    • n.a.
  • Adposition (preposition or postposition, as opposed to a particle) - in step 3 of the annotation process adpositions are not annotated unless they introduce a lexicalized dependent. Adpositions are covered optionally and experimentally in the post-annotation step (step 4), following the inherently adpositional verb (IAV) guidelines.
    • разчитам на to rely on
      излизам със to come out with
    • n.a.
    • to come across
      to rely on
    • confiar en to_trust in to trust in entender de to_understand of to know about
    • n.a.
    • izlaziti s kim to go out with someone
    • confidare su to_trust in to trust in intendersi di to_understand of to know about
    • conta pe count on
  • Extended nominal phrase (possibly including modifiers, prepositions, postpositions or case markers) - apply LVC tests. If the outcome is negative, apply the VID-specific tests. On negative outcome discard the VMWE candidate.
    • ритам камбаната kick the bell to dieкамбаната is a noun phrase composed of a single noun
      давам зелена светлина give green light to allowзелена светлина is a noun phrase composed of an adjective and a noun
      ставам на кайма turn into mince to be destroyedна кайма is a prepositional phrase composed of a preposition governing a noun
    • die Nase rümpfen the nose wrinkle turn up one's nose at sth. die Nase is a noun phrase composed of a determiner and a noun
      in Kraft treten into
    • to make a wish a wish is a noun phrase composed of a determiner and a noun
      to take turns turns is a noun phrase composed of a single plural noun
    • pedir un deseo un deseo is a noun phrase composed of a determiner and a noun
      entrar en vigoren vigor is a prepositional phrase composed of a preposition and a noun
    • kontuan hartu into-account take to take into accountthe NP, kontuan, is composed of a noun (kontu), a determiner (a) and a postposition (-n)
      urratsak egin steps do to take stepsthe NP, urratsak, is composed of a single plural noun (urrats+ak)
    • doći do zaključkato come to conlusion, to concludedo zaključka in doubt is a prepositional phrase composed of a preposition governing a noun
    • prendere in considerazione take into account in considerazione is a prepositional phrase composed of a preposition and a noun
      rompere il silenzio to break the silence il silenzio is a noun phrase composed of an article and singular noun
      mettere radici radici is a noun phrase composed of a single plural noun
    • podjąć decyzjęto take a decisiondecyzję decision is a nominal phrase composed of a single noun
      chodzić prostą drogą to go (on) a straight road.INST to avoid complications prostą drogą(on)a straight road is a noun phrase composed of an adjective and a noun in (instrumental)
      bujać w obłokach to swing in the cloudsto fantasizew obłokach in the clouds is a prepositinal phrase composed of a preposition and a noun
    • tomar banho to take a shower banho is a noun phrase composed of a single noun
    • a rupe tăcerea to break silence the to start talking tăcerea is a noun phrase composed composed of a single noun
      a face baie to do bathto take a shower baie is a noun phrase composed of a single noun
    • biti v dvomih to be in doubts to doubtv dvomih in doubts is a prepositional phrase composed of a preposition governing a noun, klicati jelene to call cerfs to vomit jeleni cerfs is a noun phrase composed of a single plural noun
  • (Hindi-specific) Adjective which is morphologically identical to an eventive noun: Apply the LVC tests. If the outcome is negative, apply the VID-specific tests. On negative outcome discard the VMWE candidate.
    • Warning! Examples not found in database for id=5.1_R_test-s4-hindi-adjective
  • Adjective: Apply the VID-specific tests. On negative outcome discard the VMWE candidate.
    • излизам сух от водата to come out dry from the water to avoid taking responsibility
      одирам жив skin alive to make somone suffer
      гоня дивото chase the wild.ADJ to take risks дивото is a substantive
    • rot sehen to see red
    • τα βάφω μαύρα them-NE.PL.ACC paint-1.SG black-NE.PL.ACC be very sad
    • to stand firm, to see red
    • me las vi negras me the saw black I saw myself in trouble
      ponerse negro put.self black to get/become irritated
      poner verde put green to criticise (someone)
    • zuriak eta beltzak aditu white and black hear to hear all sorts of things
    • voir rouge to see red to be very angry
    • ostati svoj to stay one's own to be consistent
    • vedere nero to see black
    • zrobić swojeto do one's ownto do what one is supposed to do
    • pensar grande to think big
    • a vedea roșu to see red
      a o face lată to CL.ACC make wideto party
    • narediti svojeto do one's ownto do what one is supposed to do
  • Adverb: Apply the VID-specific tests. On negative outcome discard the VMWE candidate.
    • изваждам наяве take out in the open to uncover
      хващам натясно catch in a tight place to coerce, to pressure
    • φέρωβαρέως
    • to get well
    • caer bien fall well to be liked by
    • alferrik galdu uselessly get-lost to ruin, to spoil
    • dobroproći to go well to be successful
    • fare passi avanti to_make steps forward to make progress
    • chcieć dobrze to want wellto have good intentions
      robić komuś dobrze to do someone.DAT wellto please someone
      źle/marnie skończyć badly finishto come to a bad end
    • cair
        bem
      fall well to be appropriate
    • a se face bine to himself make well to get well
      a face bine to make well to help
    • obrniti se na bolje to turn for better to be better, iti predaleč to go to far to demand to much or to do something inappropriate
  • Pronoun: Apply the VID-specific tests. On negative outcome discard the VMWE candidate.
    • мързи ме (it feels) lazy me.ACC to be lazy
    • τακαταφέρνω to make it
      τηνπατάω to fail
    • to make it
    • jugársela play.self.it to risk it
    • elkar hartu each-other take to get on with somebody, to agree
    • suarekin jolasean ibili with-fire playing be to play with fire
    • le faire it make to be enough/successful
    • farcela to make it to manage
    • No example found in Polish
    • dá-lhe João! give to him/her, João! show them what you got, João!
    • a o coti CL.ACC.F.3SG turn to turnwith the non-anaphoric feminine clitic 'o' functioning as an expletive
    • imeti ga pod kapo to have him under one's hat to be drunk, mahniti jo to hit her to start going (somewhere)
  • Verb with lexicalized dependents including fully lexicalized clauses: Apply the VID-specific tests. On negative outcome discard the VMWE candidate.
    • не мога да кажа две думи на кръст cannot say two words on a cross to not be able to speak or express oneself
      правя сам да си говори make someone talk to himself to drive someone crazy
    • to make ends meet, to know on which side the bread is buttered

    • hacer de tripas corazón make of intestines heart to pluck up the courage
      dejar con la miel en los labios to_leave with the honey in the lips leave (sb) wanting more
      dar gato por liebre to_give cat for hare to rip off, to take for a ride
    • n.a.
    • okretati se kako vjetar puše to turn how the wind blows to be inconsistent
    • sbarcare il lunario to_land the living to make ends meet
      non avere peli sulla lingua do not have hair on the tongue to be outspoken
    • wiedzieć, co w trawie piszczy to know what in the grass squeaks to know what is going on, to be well informed
    • vedeti, koliko je ura to know what the time it is to realize the truth
  • Other: Apply the VID-specific tests. On negative outcome discard the VMWE candidate.

The aim of this test is to determine which category-specific identification tests should be applied. Note that for the VMWE candidates having the structure of a meaning-preserving variant, the test should be applied to their canonical form instead. This is required because there may be no verb or the verb may not be the syntactic head in such variants.